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Turabian Style

Turabian: Manual for Writers of Term PapersKate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed. 2007) provides a simplified guide to using the citation format from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, along with research tips from The Craft of Research, 2nd edition, by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams.

"Turabian" can be found at the Reference Desk in Mullins Library:

Turabian, Kate. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. Revised by Wayne C. Booth et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Ref Desk LB 2269 .T8 2007.

You can also check our links to web resources on Chicago / Turabian style.

Notes and Bibliography Formats

Turabian specifies slightly different formats for footnotes or endnotes and for bibliography. Most obviously, note style gives an author's first name first while bibliography style inverts the last and first names. Extensive examples for many different publication types can be found in Turabian's Manual on pages 160 - 215, where you will find a note format indicated by "N" and a bibliography format by "B."

In the examples below, we have tried to give both note style and bibliography style for each item. The examples represent the first time an item would be cited in a particular work; see Turabian's Manual on page 142 for subsequent note references to an item previously cited.

Electronic Formats

In general, Turabian style specifies that one add the URL and (accessed month day, year) after the publication date in a citation.

Turabian Examples

Article in a Scholarly Journal

Print Article in a Scholarly Journal

Journal article citation form Ebsco

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Journal. volume, no. # (date) : pages.

13Charles H. Adams, "Reading Ecologically: Language and Play in Bartram's Travels," The Southern Quarterly 32, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 65.

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no. # (date) : pages.

Adams, Charles H. "Reading Ecologically: Language and Play in Bartram's Travels."The Southern Quarterly 32, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 65-74.

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Electronic Article in a Scholarly Journal

Electronic Journal Article example

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Journal. volume, no. # (date) : pages, , URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Chiam Goodman-Strausss, "A strongly aperiodic set of tiles in the hyperbolic plane," Inventiones Mathematicae 159, no. 1 (January 2005): 119-132, http://www.ebscohost.com (accessed August 22, 2011).

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no. # (date) : pages. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Goodman-Strauss, Chaim. "A strongly aperiodic set of tiles in the hyperbolic plane." Inventiones Mathematicae 159, no. 1 (January 2005): 119-132. http://www.ebscohost.com (accessed August 22, 2011).

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Article in a Popular Magazine

Print Article in a Popular Magazine

Periodical Article Citation form Ebsco

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages.

13Malcolm Jones, "True Lit." Newsweek, December 20, 2010, 55-7.

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages.

Jones, Malcolm. "True Lit." Newsweek, December 20, 2010, 55-7.

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Electronic Article in a Popular Magazine

Online Article from a popular Magazine

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages (if available), accessed Month day, year, URL (accessed Month, day, year).

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages (if available). URL (accessed Month day, year).

Jones, Malcolm. "True Lit." Newsweek, December 08, 2010. http://www.newsweek.com/2010/12/09/did-you-know-that-true-grit-is-a-book-too.html (accessed January 26, 2011).

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Article in a Newspaper

Print Article in a Newspaper

Newspaper Citation

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Newspaper, Month day, year, sec. , p. .

13James Gorman, "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives," New York Times, April 29, 2005, sec. A, p. 18.

Bibliography (Turabian):

Turabian suggests that "news items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography" (p. 186-188). Instead, if one quotes extensively from a single newspaper, a citation for the entire newspaper and range of dates consulted should be provided in the bibliography, example: New York Times, April 15 - July 1, 2005.

Below are examples of citations for specific news items.

Author First Name Author Last Name. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper, Month Day Year, [Edition can be supplied, if available]. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Gorman, James. "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives." New York Times, April 29, 2005. Late Edition - Final. http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/ (accessed Month, day, year).

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Electronic Article in a Newspaper

Online Newspaper Article from Lexis Nexis

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Newspaper, Month day, year, [edition can be supplied, if available], URL (accessed Month day, year).

13James Gorman, "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives," New York Times, April 29, 2005, late edition-final, http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/ (accessed August 1, 2011).

Bibliography:

Turabian suggests that "news items from daily papers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography" (p. 186-188). Instead, if one quotes extensively from a single newspaper, a citation for the entire newspaper and range of dates consulted should be provided in the bibliography, example: New York Times, April 15 - July 1, 2005. http://nytimes.com (accessed August 1, 2011).

Below are examples of citations for specific news items.

Author First Name Author Last Name. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper, Month Day Year, [Edition can be supplied, if available]. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Gorman, James. "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives." New York Times, April 29, 2005. Late Edition - Final. http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/ (accessed August 1, 2011).

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Review

Print Review

Review Citation from Ebsco

Note:

notenumberReviewer First Name Reviewer Last Name, review of Title of Work (qualifier, if needed), by Author's First Name Author's Last Name, Journal or Magazine Name, volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month Day,Year): pages.

13David Denby, review of True Grit (film), directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, New Yorker, 86, no. 45 (January 24, 2011): 16.

Bibliography:

Reviewer Last Name, Reviewer First Name. Review of Title of Work Being Reviewed, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name. Journal or Magazine Name volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month, Day Year): pages.

Denby, David. Review of True Grit (film), directed by Joel and Ethan Coen. New Yorker 86, no. 45 (January 24, 2011): 16.

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Electronic Review

Online film review

Note:

notenumberReviewer First Name Reviewer Last Name, review of Title of Work, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name, Journal or Magazine Name, volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month Day,Year): pages, URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Martha Nichomsin, review of Winter's Bone (film), directed by by Debra Granik, Cineaste 36, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 52-54, http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55609581&site=ehost-live (accessed January 24, 2011).

Bibliography:

Reviewer Last Name, Reviewer First Name. Review of Title of Work Being Reviewed, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name. Journal or Magazine Name volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month, Day Year): pages. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Nochimson, Martha. Review of Winter's Bone (film), directed by Debra Granik. Cineaste 36, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 52-54. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55609581&site=ehost-live (accessed January 24, 2011).

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Entire Book

Print Book

Library catalog image

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page numbers.

13Robert Cochran, Our Own Sweet Sounds: A Celebration of Popular Music in Arkansas (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1996), 57.

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book. Place: Publisher, year.

Cochran, Robert. Our Own Sweet Sounds: A Celebration of Popular Music in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1996.

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Electronic Book

EEBO record

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page numbers, URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Thomas Heywood, The Life of Merlin (London: Printed by J. Okes, 1641), 10-14, http://eebo.chadwyck.com/ (accessed January 15, 2011).

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book. Place: Publisher, year. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Heywood, Thomas, The Life of Merlin. London: Printed by J. Okes, 1641. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/ (accessed January 15, 2011).

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Book Chapter

Print Book Chapter

Chapter citation

Note:

notenumberChapter Author First Name Chapter Author Last Name, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

13Susan M. Marren, "Between Slavery and Freedom: The Transgressive Self in Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography,"in Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800: Volume 143. (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2008), 129-138.

Bibliography:

Chapter Author Last Name, Chapter Author First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher, year.

Marren, Susan M. "Between Slavery and Freedom: The Transgressive Self in Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography." In Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800: Volume 143, 129-138. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2008.

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Electronic Book Chapter

Book chapter from an online book

Note:

notenumberChapter Author First Name Chapter Author Last Name, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number, URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Stephen Roosa and Matt Hanka, "The Environment and Sustainable Development," in Sustainable Development Handbook. ed Stephen Roosa (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008), 81-112, http://www.knovel.com/ (accessed January 26, 2011).

Bibliography:

Chapter Author Last Name, Chapter Author First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher, year. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Roosa, Stephen and Matt Hanka. "The Environment and Sustainable Development." In Sustainable Development Handbook. ed Stephen Roosa, 81-112. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008. http://www.knovel.com/ (accessed January 26, 2011).

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Entry in a Reference Source

Turabian (page 191) specifies that "well-known" reference works such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica are normally cited only in notes and not listed in a bibliography. Less famous reference works should still be listed in a bibliography. Check with your instructor if you are not certain about including a reference work in your bibliography.

For dictionaries and encyclopedias that are arranged alphabetically, you may use the abbreviation s.v.(sub verbo, Latin for "under the word") to indicate that the source is to be found under the entry for that word. Example: Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed. s.v. "Arkansas." More about citing reference books can be found on pages 191-2.

Print Entry in a Reference Source

Entry from a reference book

Note:

notenumberEntry Author First Name Entry Author Last Name, "Title of Entry," in Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

13Stephen Chism, "Lessie Stringfellow Read," in Arkansas Biography. ed. Nancy Williams (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2000), 233-4.

Bibliography:

Entry Author Last Name, Entry Author First Name. "Title of Entry." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of entry. Place: Publisher, year.

Chism, Stephen. "Lessie Stringfellow Read." In Arkansas Biography. ed. Nancy Williams, 233-4. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2000.

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Electronic Entry in a Reference Source

Reference article from the Encyclopedia of Life online

Notes:

notenumberEntry Author First Name Entry Author Last Name, "Title of Entry," in Title of Source, URL (accessed Month day, year).

or

notenumberTitle of Source, s.v. "Title of Entry," URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Encylopedia of Life, s.v. "Campephilus principalis," http://www.eol.org/pages/917243 (accessed January 24, 2011).

Bibliography:

Entry Author Last Name, Entry Author First Name. "Title of Entry." In Title of Resource.URL (accessed Month day, year).

"Campephilus principalis." In Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org/pages/917243 (accessed January 24, 2011).

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Published Conference Paper

Print Published Conference Paper

Published Conference paper

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author last Name, "Title of Paper," in Title of Conference Proceedings, edited by Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page numbers.

13M. D. Leh and S.G. Bajwa, "Land Use Change in NW Arkansas: Implications for Runoff Potential on the West Fork Watershed," in IEEE Region 5 Technical Conference, 2007, edited by Vasundara V. Varadan (Piscataway, N.J. : IEEE, 2007), 419-23.

Bibliography:

Paper Author Last Name, Paper Author First Name. "Title of Paper." In Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of paper. Place: Publisher, year.

Leh, M.D. and S.G. Bajwa. "Land Use Change in NW Arkansas: Implications for Runoff Potential on the West Fork Watershed." In IEEE Region 5 Technical Conference, 2007, ed. Vasundara V. Varadan, 419-23. Piscataway, N.J. : IEEE, 2007.

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Electronic Published Conference Paper

Online Conference Papers

Note:

notenumberPaper Author First Name Paper Author Last Name, "Title of Paper," in Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number, URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Phillip J. Jones and George J. Fowler, "The Limits of Democracy in Academic Libraries in a Revolutionary Age," in A Declaration of Interdependence: The Proceedings of the ACRL 2011 Conference. ed. Dawn M Mueller (Chicago: ACRL, 2011), 305-12, http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/events/national/acrl2011papers.cfm (accessed May 26, 2011).

Bibliography:

Paper Author Last Name, Paper Author First Name. "Title of Paper." In Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of Paper. Place: Publisher, year. URL (accessed Month day, year).

Jones, Phillip J. and George J. Fowler. "The Limits of Democracy in Academic Libraries in a Revolutionary Age." In A Declaration of Interdependence: The Proceedings of the ACRL 2011 Conference, ed. Dawn M Mueller, 305-12. Chicago: ACRL, 2011. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/events/national/acrl2011papers.cfm (accessed May 26, 2011).

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Government Document

Turabian (pages 205 - 215) provides extensive guidance on citation formats for government documents. Below are some general examples for U.S. documents.

Print Government Document

Record for a printed Congressional Hearing

Note:

notenumberrU.S. Congress, Chamber, Committee Name, Title of Document, Congress, session, date or year. Document Number, if available, pages.

13U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Government Reform, Back to the Drawing Board: A First look at Lessons Learned from Katrina: Hearing before the Comm. on Government Reform, 109th Cong., 1st sess., (2005), 182-83.

Bibliography:

U.S. Congress. Chamber. Committee Name. Title of Document. Congress, session, date or year. Document Number, if available.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Back to the Drawing Board: a First Look at Lessons Learned from Katrina: Hearing before the Committee on Government Reform. 109th Cong., 1st sess., September 15, 2005.

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Electronic

Online Congressional Report

Note:

notenumberU.S. Congress, Chamber, Committee Name, Title of Document, Congress, session, date or year. Document Number, if available, pages, URL (accessed Month day, year).

13U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, "Providing for the Establishment of the Buffalo National River in the State of Arkansas, and for other Purposes: Report to Accompany H.R. 8382, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1972, H.R. Rep 92-807, http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:SERIAL
&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1295E7D36B2096A0&svc_dat=Digital:ssetdoc&req_dat=102B42A8F11068DD (accessed January 17, 2011).

Bibliography:

U.S. Congress. Chamber. Committee Name. Title of Document. Congress, session, date or year. Document Number, if available. URL ( accessed Month, day, year).

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. "Providing for the Establishment of the Buffalo National River in the State of Arkansas, and for other Purposes: Report to Accompany H.R. 8382. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1972. H.R. Rep 92-807. http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:SERIAL
&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1295E7D36B2096A0&svc_dat=Digital:ssetdoc&req_dat=102B42A8F11068DD (accessed January 17, 2011).

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Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation

See pages 194-5 of the Manual for more information. The titles of unpublished theses and dissertations are given in quotes, rather than in italics.

Print Thesis or Dissertation

Record for a Printed Thesis

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Title of Thesis" (Ph.D. diss., University Name, year), page number.

13David Mott, "'Effects of Cattle Pasture Runoff on the Water Chemistry of the Buffalo River, Boxley Valley, Arkansas" (master's thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 1990), 113.

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name."Title of Thesis." Master's thesis or Ph.D. diss., school, year. (ProQuest abstract number, if available).

Mott, David N. "'Effects of Cattle Pasture Runoff on the Water Chemistry of the Buffalo River, Boxley Valley, Arkansas." Master's thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 1990.

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Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Record for an online dissertation at ProQuest

Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Title of Thesis" (Ph.D. diss., University Name, year), page number, URL (accessed Month day, year).

13Gary Zeller, "'If I ain't one, you won't find another one here': Race, identity, citizenship and land; the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830--1910" (Ph.D. diss, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2003), 113, http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.uark.edu (accessed January 15, 2011).

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name."Title of Thesis." Master's thesis or Ph.D. diss., school, year. (ProQuest abstract number, if available). URL (accessed Month day, year).

Zeller, Gary. "'If I ain't one, you won't find another one here': Race, identity, citizenship and land; the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830--1910." Ph.D. diss, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2003. (ProQuest AAT 3122394). http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.uark.edu (Accessed January 15, 2011).

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Web Page

See pages 198-9 of the Manual for more information. Try to include as much information as possible:

Web Site Example

Note:

notenumberPage Author First Name Page Author Last Name (if given), "Specific Page Title," Name of web site, URL (accessed Month, day, year).

13"What is Rock Art?" Rock Art in Arkansas, http://rockart.uark.edu/qfwhatisrockart.html (accessed June 1, 2011).

Bibliography:

Page Author Last Name, Page Author First Name (if available), "Name of Site." URL (accessed Month Day Year).

Sabo, G., et al. "Rock Art in Arkansas." http://rockart.uark.edu/ (accessed April 26, 2006).

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